Know your Camel

1.Camels lose only 1.3 litres of faecal water whereas cattle lose 20-40 litres of fluid through their faeces.
2.Camel can replenish water deficit faster than other animals. A water deficit of 200 litres can be done in 3 minutes by a 600 kg camel
3.The urine production is greatly reduced in the dehydrated camel.
4.Camel kidneys have long loops of Henle and can manage salts. Camel can take sea water without any side effects and can excrete sea water with a salt concentration almost double that of sea water.
5.Camels continue to lactate in dehydrated state.
6.Camel has a rapid entry of water into blood than any other animal.
7.Accumulation of fat in hump act as energy reservoir.
8.Camels donot have gall bladder
9.Ballooning of soft palate as observed in male camels is not seen in other species.
10.Alimentary tract is sole source of water in dehydrated state because this water is continuously absorbed from the intestines.
11.Camels can withstand more than 3 weeks without drinking water and continue to eat.
12.Camel stomach has 3 compartments called as compartment no. 1, 2 or 3.
13.There are 19.4 millions camel world wide (FAO, 2003).
14.Camels have a unique class of antibodies referred as Heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) because they lack the classical light chain and are composed of a homodimer of heavy chains.
15.Erythrocytes of camels are ovaloid, fairly flat and non-nucleated.
16. Intravascular haemolysis due to hypotonicity does not appear to occur in camels.
17.Camel mammary gland has 4 teats. Each teat has pair of orifices.
18.Rumen is known as compartment 1 and has a capacity of approximately 100 litres in adult camel.
19.Reticulum is known as compartment 2.
20.Omasum is proximal part of compartment 3 and abomasums is considered as prepyloric part of compartment 3.
21.Female camels are seasonally polyoestrous animals.
22.Camels are coitally induced ovulators and ovulation is reported to occur 3-4 days after coitus.
21.Female camels are seasonally polyoestrous animals.
23.Duration of pregnancy in the dromedary has a range of 370-405 days with an average of 385 days.
24.Prehension occurs by sensitive prehensile lips.
25.In camels, the recycling of urea into the stomach is accompanied by water thus helping to maintain the camel’s vital alimentary pool.
26.Camels have diffuse and epitheliochorial and resembles that of mare.
27.Camels have poll glands 10 cms caudal to the occipital crest. It produces blackish, foul smelling secretion to attract females in rut season.
28.The occurrence of mandibular fracture in camels is highest of all other domestic species.
29.The energy requirement for maintenance of a 450 kg camel is 37MJ.
30.Camel has a very low basal metabolism and exceptional water conserving adaptation.31.Camel milk has a strong similarity with human milk.
32.Camel milk is high in insulin, vitamin C, niacin and omega 7 fatty acids.
33.The absence of betalactoglobulin and the different compositions of proteins in camel milk may prevent allergic reactions therefore may be suitable alternative for infant milk products.
34.Heat inactivation at 72 degree C for 5 minutes on different camel milk parameters including insulin and vitamin C reduces their amount by only 5-8%..